D1 and DX (Rossow and Schiffer , 1999).
Atmospheric Daily Global Product Level-3
Terra and Aqua Collection 5 monthly Level-3 aerosol data.
• Supplementary data for MODIS shortwave fluxes:
Missing MODIS data replaced with: precipitable water from the National
Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis Data
aerosol optical depths under cloudy conditions and over arid areas are
filled with information from the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR)
Component Global Aerosol Product (CGAS); Spectral surface albedo from the
Filled Land Surface Albedo Product, which is generated by the MODIS
Atmosphere team fromMOD43B3 (the official Terra/MODIS-derived Land Surface
and Meteosat-8 observations:
European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT)
Archive and Retrieval Facility.
• Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) observing stations
Buoy observations of radiative fluxes
• Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic (PIRATA)
(Servain et al., 1998; Bourles et al., 2008).
• Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON)
moorings in the tropical Pacific Ocean (McPhaden et al., 1998).
• ASIS buoy in the “flux, etat de la mer, et
teledetection en conditions de fetch variable” (FETCH) (Hauser
et al., 2003).
• ASIS buoy from the Baltic Sea Swell Experiment (BASE)
(Högström et al., 2008) (a joint effort among agencies from the
United States, Sweden and Finland).
• ASIS buoy ROMEO (Zhang et al., 2009) part
of the Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) (Graber et al.,
2000). The buoy is influenced by the Gulf Stream, which is a region of
large discrepancy between WHOI and IFREMER flux estimates.
• NOAA Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) KEO mooring site.
Kuroshio ExtensionObservatory (JKEO) moored buoy JKEO mooring site.
Mode Water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE) buoys.
• PAPA mooring site.
Sea Surface Temperature
Most recent release of the Reynolds analysis (Reynolds et al.,
2007). In addition to the satellite SST retrievals from AVHRR and AMSR-E
the Reynolds products assimilate observations from ships and buoys from
the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS).
Surface wind speed
and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data.
Air Temperature and humidity
• Tested were also Jackson et al. (2006, 2009) derived satellite-based
estimates of specific air humidity and air temperature; they combined
ship, buoy and satellite microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave
Sounding Unit (AMSU-A), Special Sensor Microwave Temperature Sounder (SSM/T-2)
and SSM/I based on multiple linear regressions.
Numerical Model outputs
The National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) Department of
Energy (DOE) Reanalysis II from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
(Berrisford et al., 2009).
ERA Interim and NCEP-DOE Reanalysis II use the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM)
the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) group.
Independent Satellite estimates
International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, ISCCP-FD model output (Zhang
et al., 2004) utilizes satellite observations from ISCCP cloud
products (D1) gridded at a 280 km equal area grid and then transformed to a 2.5
degree equal angle grid.
• The Global
Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Surface Radiation Budget (
GEWEX-SRB) model (Hinkelman, et al., 2009).
Heat flux datasets
IFREER (Bentamy et al., 2003,
2008, 2013), available for years 1999-2009 at
daily time scale at 0.25 degree horizontal resolution.
WHOI (Yu et al.,
2008) available for years 1985-2008 at daily time scale and at 1degree
Variables used to derive IFREMER and WHOI
turbulent heat fluxes (latent and sensible) and their origin are given in
Source for IFREMER
Source for WHOI
Estimated from specific air humidity, wind speed
and sea surface temperature using the Konda et al. (1996) model
NCEP, ECMWF re-analyses
Sea surface temperature
Reynolds et al.
NCEP, ECMWF re-analyses, Reynolds et al.
Surface wind speed
ERS-1, ERS-2, QuickSCAT scatterometers
NCEP, ECMWF re-analyses, SSM/I and AMSR-E
radiometers, QuickSCAT scatterometer
Specific air humidity
Estimated from SSM/I brightness temperature using
the Schulz (1993, 1997) model
NCEP, ECMWF re-analyses, product from Chou et
al.(1997) using SSM/I column water vapor retrievals