Reading assignments

Required readings in blue, and you are free to choose other materials, e.g., something that leading to your final project.

History of GCMs  (Required)
P. N. Edwards, 2000: A brief history of atmospheric general circulation modeling
or website: http://www.aip.org/history/sloan/gcm/

Gaia hopothesis and daisy world
Watson, A.J. and J.E. Lovelock. 1983. Biological homeostasis of the global environment: the parable of Daisyworld. Tellus 35B:284.

Tropical simple models

Gill, A. E., 1980: Some simple solutions for heat induced tropical circulation.
Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. vol 106, 447-462.

Zebiak, S. E., 1986: Atmospheric convergence feedback in a simple model for
El Nino.  Mon. Wea. Rev. vol 114,  1263-1271.

Energy balance models

Sellers, W.D., 1969, A global climatic model based on the energy balance of
the earth atmosphere system, J. Appl. Meteor., 8, 391-400.

Ghil, M., l976: Climate stability for a Sellers-type model, J. Atmos. Sci., 33,
3-20.

Early GCMs (less complex, therefore easier to understand)

Smagorinsky, J., S. Manabe, and J. L. Holloway, 1965:
Numerical Results from a nine-level general circulation model of the atmosphere.
Mon. Wea.  Rev., 93, 727-768.

Manabe, S., J. Smagorinsky and R. F. Strickler, 1965:  Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrological cycle.
Mon. Wea.  Rev., 93, 769-798.

Solar insolation at the top of the atmosphere

Sellers, W. D., 1965: Physical Climatology. University of Chicago Press, 272~pp.

Hartmann, Dennis L.: Global physical climatology: Academic Press, c1994.


Land-surface models

Manabe, S., J. Smagorinsky and R. F. Strickler, 1965:  Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrological cycle.  Mon. Wea.  Rev., 93, 769-798.  (including the bucket model)

Zeng, N., J. D. Neelin, and C. Chou, 2000: A quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model--implementation and simulation.  J.~Atmos.~Sci., 57, 1767-1796. (including the Simple-Land model, and surface flux parameterizations)
QTCM wetsite and code
QTCM2.3 Code
Shao, Y., and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1996: Modeling soil moisture: a Project for Intercomparison of Land Surface Parameterization Schemes Phase 2(b). J.~Geophys.~Res., 101, 7227-7250.

Sellers, P.J., D.A. Randall, C.J. Collatz, J.A. Berry, C.B. Field, D.A. Dazlich, C. Zhang, and C.D.Collelo, 1996. A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs. Part 1:Model formulation. Journal of Climate, 9, 676-705.

Dickinson, R. E. 1983. Land surface processes and climate-surface albedos and energy balance.  Advances in Geophysics 25, 305--53. Academic Press.

Dickinson, R. E., 1995: Land-atmosphere interaction. Rev. Geophys., 33 (Suppl.), 917-922.

Dickinson, R. E., A. Henderson-Sellers, and P. J. Kennedy, 1993: Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) Version 1e as coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-387+STR, Boulder, CO, 72~pp.

                                                                                                                    
Radiative-convective models

Manabe, S., and R. F. Strickler, 1964:  Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a convective adjustment.  J. Atmos. Sci., 21, 361-385.

Manabe, S., and R. T. Wetherald, 1967:  Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity.  J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 241-259.


Ocean models

Manabe, S.,  Bryan, K. 1969.  Climate calculations with a combined ocean-atmosphere model.  J. Atmos. Sci. 26:786--89


Climate change
Stott P. A., S. F. B. Tett, G. S. Jones, et al., 2000:
External control of 20th century temperature by natural and anthropogenic forcings.
Science, 290(5499): 2133-2137.

Stott P. A., S. F. B. Tett, G. S. Jones, M. R. Allen, W. J. Ingram, and J. F. B. Mitchell, 2001:
Attribution of twentieth century temperature change to natural and anthropogenic causes.
Clim. Dyn., 17, 1-21.

Carbon cycle climate feedbacks

Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. D. Joos, S. A. Spall, and others, 2000:
Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled
climate model. Nature, 408, N6809, 184-187.

Zeng, Ning; Qian, Haifeng; Munoz, Ernesto; Iacono, Roberto
How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming?
Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 31, No. 20, L20203
10.1029/2004GL020904

Earth system models of intermediate complexity

Claussen M, Mysak LA, Weaver AJ, et al.
Earth system models of intermediate complexity: closing the gap in the spectrum of climate system models
CLIMATE DYNAMICS 18 (7): 579-586 MAR 2002

and 1 or 2 papers on application of EMICs

Paleoclimate modeling
PMIP projects:  1. monsoon evolution; 2. Last glacial max (LGM)
Zeng, N., 2006: Quasi-100ky glacial-interglacial cycles triggered by subglacial burial carbon release. Climate of the Past Discussion pdf