Reading assignments

Required readings in blue, and you are free to choose other materials, e.g., something that leading to your final project.

History of GCMs  (Required)
P. N. Edwards, 2000: A brief history of atmospheric general circulation modeling
or website:

Gaia hopothesis and daisy world
Watson, A.J. and J.E. Lovelock. 1983. Biological homeostasis of the global environment: the parable of Daisyworld. Tellus 35B:284.

Tropical simple models

Gill, A. E., 1980: Some simple solutions for heat induced tropical circulation.
Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. vol 106, 447-462.

Zebiak, S. E., 1986: Atmospheric convergence feedback in a simple model for
El Nino.  Mon. Wea. Rev. vol 114,  1263-1271.

Energy balance models

Sellers, W.D., 1969, A global climatic model based on the energy balance of
the earth atmosphere system, J. Appl. Meteor., 8, 391-400.

Ghil, M., l976: Climate stability for a Sellers-type model, J. Atmos. Sci., 33,

Early GCMs (less complex, therefore easier to understand)

Smagorinsky, J., S. Manabe, and J. L. Holloway, 1965:
Numerical Results from a nine-level general circulation model of the atmosphere.
Mon. Wea.  Rev., 93, 727-768.

Manabe, S., J. Smagorinsky and R. F. Strickler, 1965:  Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrological cycle.
Mon. Wea.  Rev., 93, 769-798.

Solar insolation at the top of the atmosphere

Sellers, W. D., 1965: Physical Climatology. University of Chicago Press, 272~pp.

Hartmann, Dennis L.: Global physical climatology: Academic Press, c1994.

Land-surface models

Manabe, S., J. Smagorinsky and R. F. Strickler, 1965:  Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrological cycle.  Mon. Wea.  Rev., 93, 769-798.  (including the bucket model)

Zeng, N., J. D. Neelin, and C. Chou, 2000: A quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model--implementation and simulation.  J.~Atmos.~Sci., 57, 1767-1796. (including the Simple-Land model, and surface flux parameterizations)
QTCM wetsite and code
QTCM2.3 Code
Shao, Y., and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1996: Modeling soil moisture: a Project for Intercomparison of Land Surface Parameterization Schemes Phase 2(b). J.~Geophys.~Res., 101, 7227-7250.

Sellers, P.J., D.A. Randall, C.J. Collatz, J.A. Berry, C.B. Field, D.A. Dazlich, C. Zhang, and C.D.Collelo, 1996. A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs. Part 1:Model formulation. Journal of Climate, 9, 676-705.

Dickinson, R. E. 1983. Land surface processes and climate-surface albedos and energy balance.  Advances in Geophysics 25, 305--53. Academic Press.

Dickinson, R. E., 1995: Land-atmosphere interaction. Rev. Geophys., 33 (Suppl.), 917-922.

Dickinson, R. E., A. Henderson-Sellers, and P. J. Kennedy, 1993: Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) Version 1e as coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-387+STR, Boulder, CO, 72~pp.

Radiative-convective models

Manabe, S., and R. F. Strickler, 1964:  Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a convective adjustment.  J. Atmos. Sci., 21, 361-385.

Manabe, S., and R. T. Wetherald, 1967:  Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity.  J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 241-259.

Ocean models

Manabe, S.,  Bryan, K. 1969.  Climate calculations with a combined ocean-atmosphere model.  J. Atmos. Sci. 26:786--89

Climate change
Stott P. A., S. F. B. Tett, G. S. Jones, et al., 2000:
External control of 20th century temperature by natural and anthropogenic forcings.
Science, 290(5499): 2133-2137.

Stott P. A., S. F. B. Tett, G. S. Jones, M. R. Allen, W. J. Ingram, and J. F. B. Mitchell, 2001:
Attribution of twentieth century temperature change to natural and anthropogenic causes.
Clim. Dyn., 17, 1-21.

Carbon cycle climate feedbacks

Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. D. Joos, S. A. Spall, and others, 2000:
Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled
climate model. Nature, 408, N6809, 184-187.

Zeng, Ning; Qian, Haifeng; Munoz, Ernesto; Iacono, Roberto
How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming?
Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 31, No. 20, L20203

Earth system models of intermediate complexity

Claussen M, Mysak LA, Weaver AJ, et al.
Earth system models of intermediate complexity: closing the gap in the spectrum of climate system models
CLIMATE DYNAMICS 18 (7): 579-586 MAR 2002

and 1 or 2 papers on application of EMICs

Paleoclimate modeling
PMIP projects:  1. monsoon evolution; 2. Last glacial max (LGM)
Zeng, N., 2006: Quasi-100ky glacial-interglacial cycles triggered by subglacial burial carbon release. Climate of the Past Discussion pdf