









• 
Bred
vectors (BVs) and Lyapunov vectors (LVs)




are closely related:



• 
BVs
with infinitesimal
amplitude are identical to



leading LVs.



• 
BVs
are FiniteAmplitude, FiniteTime, whereas



LVs are infinitesimal, and are defined after


an infinite time



• 
Which ones are better for data
assimilation and




ensemble forecasting?



