One-way and two-way coupling of
Ocean-Atmosphere Models
The problem
a. Extended range weather prediction models commonly
assume that the ocean always forces the atmosphere
and disregard the feedback effect of the atmosphere
on the ocean. Most of the observational studies, on the
other hand, indicate that away from the deep tropics
the atmosphere tend to force the ocean.
b. There is  very limited knowledge on the characteristics
and causes of unusually long lasting anomalies.