** A Multiscale Numerical Study of Hurricane Andrew (1992).
Part III: Dynamically-Induced Vertical Motion**

**Zhang, D.-L., Y. Liu and M.K. Yau **

Figure 1. . Radius-height cross sections of the hourly
and azimuthally averaged (a) perturbation pressure p_{2}’ at intervals
of 5 hPa; and (b) perturbation pressure p_{1}’ (see the text for
definition) that are obtained from 12 model outputs at 5-minute intervals
during the 1-h budget period ending at 2100 UTC 23 August 1992. Solid (dashed)
lines are positive (negative) values. Axes of downdrafts (DN), updrafts
(UP) and the RMW, determined from Fig. 2, are also given; Similarly for
the rest of figures.

Figure 2. As in Fig. 1 but for (a) vertical velocity
(W) at intervals of 0.2 m s^{-1}; (b) tangential winds (V) at intervals
of 5 m s^{-1}, and (c) absolute angular momentum (AAM) at intervals
of 5 x 10^{5} m^{2} s^{-1}, superimposed with in-plane
wind vectors and equivalent potential temperature [i.e., dashed lines in
(c), every 4 K].

Figure 3. As in Fig. 1 but for the vertical momentum
budget: (a) the perturbation PGF (W_{P}); (b) the buoyancy force
(W_{B}) with its positive thermal component shaded at 0 and 10
m s^{-1} h^{-1}; (c) W_{BP
}= W_{B }+ W_{P} (solid lines) and radar reflectivity
(shaded at 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 dbz); (d) W_{BPL }= W_{B }+
W_{P }+ W_{L}; (e) the Coriolis contribution plus numerical
diffusion (W_{CD}); and (f) the net vertical acceleration (dW/dt).

Figure 4. Azimuth-height cross sections of (a) the
vertical acceleration (dW/dt) at intervals of 5 m s^{-1}
h^{-1} with the downdrafts shaded; (b) the q
e deviations at intervals of 1 K^{ }with
the inflows shaded; and (c) the system-relative radial flow at intervals
of 3 m s^{-1} with the inflows shaded, that are taken, after
the temporal average, along a slanting surface in the eyewall (i.e., from
R = 30 km at the surface to R = 70 km at z = 17 km). The
q e deviations are
obtained by subtracting the azimuthally-averaged values at individual heights.
Thick dashed lines denote the axes of incoming (I) and outgoing (O) air.
Thin solid (dashed) lines are for positive (negative) values. In-plane
wind vectors are superposed.

Figure 5. As in Fig. 1 but for (a) total advection
(W_{ADV}); and (b) local tendency (W_{t}) in the vertical
momentum equation.

Figure 6. (a) A vertical sounding taken at a radius
of 42 km; (b) a slantwise sounding taken along an absolute angular momentum
surface of 2.5 x 10^{6} m^{2}
s^{-1}; and (c) the horizontal distribution
of hourly-averaged CAPE with air parcels initiated at 500 m above the surface.
They are obtained by averaging 12 model outputs at 5-minute intervals during
the 1-h budget period ending at 2100 UTC 23 August 1992 (see text). Dashed
lines in (c) denote the RMW at 900 hPa.

Figure 7. As in Fig. 1 but for (a) the buoyancy-induced
pressure perturbation (P_{b}) at intervals of 5 hPa; (b) the dynamically-induced
pressure perturbation (P_{d}) at intervals of 2.5 hPa; (c) the
difference field between the perturbation pressure p_{2}’ shown
in Fig. 1a and the azimuthally-averaged inverted P’ (= P_{d} +
P_{b}); (d) the buoyancy source (F_{b}) for P_{b};
(e) the dynamic source (F_{d}) for P_{d }; and (f) the
approximated dynamic source,
which is the first term on the RHS of Eq. (9b)].

Figure 8. As in Fig. 1 but for (a) the dynamically-induced
PGF_{d} ; (b) the buoyancy-induced PGF_{b}; (c) the buoyancy
force (i.e., b), and (d) the net buoyancy force (i.e., W_{NB} =
PGF_{b} + b).

Figure 9. Horizontal distributions of the
net buoyancy force (i.e., W_{NB} = PGF_{b} and the net dynamic force
(i.e., W_{ND} = PGF_{d} + W_{CD})
at intervals of 10
m s^{-1} h^{-1}
at the given heights (a) and (d) z = 14 km;
(b) and (e) z = 8 km; and
z = 2 km over a subdomain of the
6-km resolution mesh. They are obtained by averaging 12 model outputs at
5-minute intervals during the 1-h budget period ending at 2100 UTC 23 August
1992 (see text). Shadings denote the system-relative radial inflow at these
levels.

Figure 10. As in Fig. 1 but for the decomposed components of PGF associated with the term (a) The Laplace of V*V/2; (b) the divergence of V x third coponent of vorticity; and (c) the residual [see Eq. (7) for definitions].